Impacts of Professional Development in Classroom Assessment on Teacher and Student Outcomes This article describes the impact study of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning (CASL), a widely-used professional development program in classroom and formative assessment. To be published in the Journal of Educational Research. The impact of an Associate’s degree program for Incarcerated students This article reports findings from an impact study of a 2-year postsecondary academic program offered in state prisons. Measuring Classroom Assessment Practice This chapter outlines classroom assessment knowledge and practices, discusses measurement issues related to classroom assessment, reviews existing measures of classroom assessment, and looks forward to future research in the area. Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Program on Word Knowledge and Passage Comprehension A cluster randomized trial estimated the effects of a supplemental vocabulary program, Elements of Reading®: vocabulary on student vocabulary and passage comprehension in moderate to high-poverty elementary schools. Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: The impact on elementary school mathematics in the Central Region This study was conducted by the Central Region Educational Laboratory (REL Central) administered by Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning to provide educators and policymakers with rigorous evidence about the potential of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning (CASL) to improve student achievement. Characteristics of Effective Professional Development This chapter analyzes the literature on professional development programs in classroom assessment, synthesizes the characteristics of professional development programs that are likely to promote change in teachers and students, discusses the significant challenges to conducting research in this area, and highlights where more research is needed. High school dropout and graduation rates in the Central Region This report presents comprehensive and detailed information on grades 7–12 dropout rates and on high school graduation rates in the Central Region. Appropriate assessment of young children Appropriate assessment of young children Attitudes, beliefs, and mathematics achievement of German and Japanese high school students Large differences were found between the two countries in the students’ performance. The lower scores of the German students are attributed to three major areas of difference. Compared to Japanese students, German students were less critical of themselves and their academic ability, held lower standards for their performance, and were less likely to attribute excellence in performance to studying. Mathematics achievement and attitudes about math in China and the West Evaluated the mathematics achievement of high school students, and assessed the relevance of students' attitudes and beliefs about mathematics to explain differences in achievement between students from China and other developed countries. Middle childhood: Education and schooling This is the third of the five separate entries under the broad topic Middle Childhood.